杜伯尼克2010年後竄起成為世界旅遊的新熱點。曾於1990至1991遭到7個月內戰中圍城敵軍砲火的每日轟擊。之後重建,醜陋的灰色屋瓦換新成亮麗的橘紅。如今笙歌歡樂熱鬧繁榮,不可同日而語。

Dubrovnik has been a hot touristic attraction since about 2010 after surviving a nasty civil war. It rose from the destruction under constant bombardments by the Serbian and Montenegro forces during a seven months siege between the end of 1990 to mid-1991.

杜伯尼克是古時航海貿易發達的拉古薩共和國(1358-1808)的首都。拉古薩無強大軍力,卻以高超的外交在周圍強權威脅之下,生存繁榮,保有自由和尊嚴,直至今日仍為歷史學者好奇研究的對象。它當時奉為信念的名言是:"自由無價,無論對方出多少金子,我們都不賣。" (英文Liberty is not sold for all the gold. 拉丁文 Non bene pro toto libertas venditur auro.)
拉古薩的歷史實例有台灣可借鏡之處嗎?

The city was constructed around the 12th century. From 1358 to 1808, it was the capital of the maritime Republic of Ragusa, which achieved a high level of development, particularly during the 15th and 16th centuries, as it became notable for its wealth and skilled diplomacy.

It has impressed and even puzzled historians to this day how a state without military might retained freedom for centuries among the great powers. The Republic of Ragusa was the vassal state of the following different giants in different times:
- Kingdom of Hungary (1358-1458)
-Ottoman Empire (1458-1806)
-Hapsburg Austria (1684-1806)
-French Empire and Kingdom of Italy (1806-1808)

At one time, the Republic of Ragusa was simultaneously submissive to both Ottoman Empire to the east and Hapsburg Austria to the north, serving as a bridge between the muslim Ottoman Empire and the Christian European markets.

Something to learn for the survival and freedom of Taiwan?

拉古薩共和國生存之道或許在於:
1. 避免與強權對抗。願意做為強權的屬國,而保留自己的制度。
2. 甚至願意同時作為兩個對抗強權的屬國。遊走敵對兩方,成為雙方的橋梁,和經貿的通道。如鄂圖曼帝國 和 奧地利大公國。

拉古薩共和國在不同時期座椅向強權地屬國:
- 匈牙利王國 (1358-1458)
- 鄂圖曼帝國 (1458-1806)
- 奧地利大公國 (1684-1806)
- 法蘭西帝國(拿破崙)和其下的義大利王國 (1806-1808)

杜伯尼克早在1272年已擁有自己的法典,而與當時其他的法典相近,包括了羅馬的慣律及當地的傳統。那法典也包括了城市規劃及傳染病隔離的準則。與其他鄰近地區比較,杜伯尼克的法制及規劃是相對地先進的,其中以下的例子最為突出:
• - 在1301年引入醫療服務
• - 在1317年已有第一所的藥房,至今仍如常運作
• - 在1347年開設老人收容所
• - 在1377年開設傳染病隔離醫院(拉丁語為Lazarete)
• - 在1418年廢除奴隸貿易
• - 在1432年開設孤兒院
• - 在1436年建設20公里長的供水系統
杜伯尼克是由貴族統治,統治機構為兩市的議會(Vijeće)。

In 1979, it joined the UNESCO list of World Heritage Sites. We were impressed by the abundance of nice swimming sites characterized by clear bluish green water devoid of choppy waves. The civil war brought an opportunity to rebuild the citiy with bright orange roof tiles replacing the ugly and dirty greyish brown one. People are now merrily enjoying their lives with the booming tourism.
Chong-Pin Lin June 29, 2017
林中斌 2017.6.30
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